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What things are monitored in diabetes?

The topics discussed at care meetings include lifestyle, self-monitoring, medication and coping. The meetings also involve various examinations to monitor potential related complications and their risk factors.

The realisation of self-monitoring, suitability of the medication, coping as well as eating and exercise habits are discussed as required usually 1–4 times per year. The frequency and content of the meetings are assessed based on individual needs and circumstances. The meetings also involve monitoring potential complications related to diabetes and the risk factors pertaining to them as well as supporting your ability to function and work.

Blood sugar balance

  • The results of blood sugar self-monitoring and their utilization

  • Intensified monitoring before the meeting

  • Use of glucose sensor and the related statistics

  • Glycated haemoglobin HbA1c

Insulin therapy

  • Is there any problems with injecting insulin or implementing insulin therapy?

  • The scope of injection sites and rotation

  • Condition of the injection sites? Are there any calluses or swelling?

  • How often there are hypos?

  • Has there been low blood sugars where you have required help from another person?

Other medication

  • Is the current medication appropriate?

  • Is there any issues with using the medication?


  • Weight and weight development

  • Body Mass Index (BMI)

  • The individual waistline

Blood pressure

  • Blood pressure measurement at the appointment

  • Determining the blood pressure level using self-measurements at home

    • Checking your blood pressure twice a day at 6–9 a.m. and at 6–9 p.m. on at least four days.

  • If blood pressure medication is in use, determining Serum Potassium and Serum Sodium


  • Eating rhythm, normal meal times and eating

  • Reconciling food and drug/insulin treatment

  • If necessary, a food diary


  • Types and times of exercise per week

  • Reconciling exercise and medication/insulin treatment

  • If necessary, and exercise diary and plan


  • How many units of alcohol per week?


  • Encouragement to quit smoking

  • If necessary, support for quitting

Mood and coping

  • Is there symptoms of

    • depression or anxiety?

    • care fatigue?

    • other psychological issues?

  • Is there a need for additional support for coping?


  • Blood fat levels (cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides)


  • Physical fitness

  • Pulse, listening to heart sounds and, if necessary, major blood vessels

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)

  • Strain imaging in the case of suspected coronary artery disease

  • Heart/chest x-ray and cardiac ultrasound in the case of suspected heart failure


  • Posture, skin, nails, nerves, blood circulation

  • Assessing the risk category of feet


  • Eyesight

  • Fundus photography or an examination by an eye specialist

Kidneys and urine

  • Protein in urine (albuminuria)

  • Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  • Clean urine sample in the case of infection symptoms


  • Teeth and mouth self-care guidance

  • A dentist or dental hygienist’s examination

Sexual health

  • Are there any issues regarding which you would like to get advice or treatment?

Other diseases / problems

  • Blood samples, individually:

    • Coeliac disease screening

    • Operation of the thyroid gland

    • Operation of the liver

    • B12 vitamin, if you are a long-term metformin user or if you have anaemia or nervous symptoms

Driving health

  • If you have a driving licence, are the health requirements pertaining to the vehicle class met?

  • Group 1 driving licence every 5 years at the minimum

  • Group 2 driving licence every 3 years at the minimum

  • If necessary, a doctor’s certificate for a driving licence

Medication reimbursements and social security

  • Kela reimbursement for the medication used – do you qualify for special reimbursement?

  • Are you entitled to a disability allowance?

  • Is a social worker’s report required?


  • What kind of effect does diabetes have on your ability to work?

  • How well do you manage to treat diabetes at work?

Memory functions

  • Memory tests in the case of suspected memory disorder


  • Is there need for an adaptation course for intensified guidance and support?

  • Is rehabilitation required?

Updated 30.9.2023